The standard ballast wagon until the 1980s was the Grampus. The sides were three drop doors and the ends had removable upper parts and a drop down flap, which permitted easy loading and machinery to be driven along the train. Very versatile they carried fresh ballast or spoil, bits of rail, signals etc etc. They could be seen in block trains or individually. The removable ends were placed in a carrier beneath the headstock.Originally there were 3840 unfitted. Later some were rebuilt with through vacuum or air piped and others equipped with vacuum brake. The history is written up in Bartlett, Paul W. & Mann, Trevor., (l985a) Non Hoppered Steel Ballast Wagons. part 3 The Grampus. Model Railway Constructor vol. 52 (part 610) pp 140 - 143 & 164 - 165. which includes a drawing.
Keywords:Ballast wagon, Grampus, Railway Wagon, ZBA
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